applying my lcp – building 21st century collections

In a 2012 Issue Brief, the Association of Research Libraries indicated that the 21st century requires a significant shift in thinking about library collection development “from thinking of collections as products to understanding collections as components of the academy’s knowledge resources”. We are called to “transition from institution-centric collections to a user-centric networked world” (p. 1).

In her seminal book on 21st century library collection development, Gregory (2011) recommends:

  • Examining what is in the collection and what is used (p. 17).
  • Working with the community (in our case faculty) to determine if the collection is suitable (p. 19).
  • Creating small selection teams to take advantage of multiple perspectives (p. 64).


In another seminal work, Johnson (2014) offers several methods of collection analysis, including:

  • Collection profiling – taking a statistical picture of the collection at one point in time.
  • List checking – comparing lists of key titles for the subject area to what is in the library’s collection.
  • Direct collection analysis – having someone with knowledge of the subject area scans the shelves to quickly assess the collection area.
  • Comparative statistics – examining the area of the collection in relation to other libraries.
  • Circulation studies – Examining circulation logs to determine what parts of the collection are used.

She also recommends consulting the community assess if the collection meets their needs.



Association of Research Libraries. (2012, March 10). 21st century collections: Calibration of investment and collaborative action. Retrieved from:

Gregory, V. L. (2011). Collection development and management for 21st century library collections: an introduction. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman.

Johnson, P. (2014). Fundamentals of collection development and management. London: Facet.


21st century college library collections – i’m on the right track!

Crumpton, M. A., & Bird, N. J. (2013). Handbook for Community College Librarians. Oxford: Pearson Education.

In this book, two of the researchers I have frequently encountered in my workplace information literacy research, Michael. A. Crumpton and Nora J. Bird, have written about all aspects of library services in community colleges, including collection development. In reading this chapter, I was encouraged by the fact that I have implemented a number of practices which they recommend. In this table, I have highlighted their recommendations and noted what I have in place already, or what I would like to implement:


Recommendation Response
Instead of prescribed collection size the new 2012 ACRL standards encourages librarians to “use assessment and advocacy to build a case for what the …collection should be” (p. 88) Library Liaison program collections piece.
Community college collections must focus on a wide variety of topics, support the current curriculum and rely on a smaller number of more recent materials (p. 88)  
Clear policies describing the collection and how it supports the institution’s mission, goals and objectives (p. 89) Collections policy revised
Begin with a description of the communities which will use the collection (p. 89). In the collections policy
Popular fiction collections have been shown to increase reading levels (p. 90). Public library deposit programs
“Libraries in the digital age should not be buying collections of noncirculating materials” (p. 90)  
Acquire requested materials in the most expeditious way (p. 90). Proquest Thesis on demand purchasing and Reprints Desk purchasing for some ILL requests.
Monitor publications produced by the trades you support (p. 91).  
Consult faculty on a regular basis for suggested materials (p. 90).  
Use reviews, vendor tools and comparisons to items purchased by other institutions to find quality resources (p. 91). GOBI set up with reviews included, ability to see what other libraries have purchased a title.
Consider the best format — ebook, paperback, hardcover, dvd, etc. (p. 92).  
Consider using a vendor to obtain catalogue records at the time of purchase (p. 92). EDI ordering processes with Midwest.
Consider ownership versus access (p. 92)  
Set up cooperative e-resource arrangements when possible (p. 93). Novanet ebook DDA
Use data to assess the collection (p. 95). LibInsight
There are strong rationales for establishing an archives in a community college – the yearbook collection is a good place to start (p. 96). Yearbook project, Archives policy underway




21st century library collection development

Library collections in the 21st century (2011, December 05). Retrieved September 27, 2017, from

Last evening, I viewed a brief video presentation by James G. Neal, VP for Information Services and University Librarian, Columbia University/OCLC Board Trustee, in which he outlined four shifts driving 21st century library collection development:

  1. Primal innovation – We have to rethink what we are and be innovative.
  2. Deconstruction – We will have to tear apart what we have and creatively reassemble it, bringing in new parts as needed. He says that it no longer makes sense to think of library collections in terms of individual libraries.
  3. Radical collaboration – Libraries can no longer stand side by side as we have been doing (so well) but WITH each other, working as one and/or in collectives to accomplish our goals.
  4. Survival – We must focus on what the user needs, looking at non-traditional measures; Are users happy with our products and services? Are they achieving their goals with our support?

For the last 50 years, the goal of the larger library community has been to develop new approaches to coordinate collection development, but we have not done that; we have not been successful in implementing shared investments in collections. And now we are at the point where we must act as a collective by selecting, acquiring, owning, synthesizing, organizing and distributing TOGETHER.

  • We force users to make hard choices by limiting their information queries to what’s on OUR shelves.
  • Sophisticated interlibrary loan isn’t enough. User expectations have shifted dramatically and limitations of time and distance shouldn’t matter anymore.
  • With the massive decline in faculty coming to post-secondary libraries, we need to deliver content and functionality to the desktop of faculty and students and to deliver information in the online environment they are mostly in, to move librarians to the point of need.

workplace info lit

I’ve been researching workplace information literacy in preparation for our presentation at the fall 2017 NSLA Conference. Here are a few articles of note:

Bird, N. J., Crumpton, M., Ozan, M., & Williams, T. (2012). Workplace information literacy: a neglected priority for community college libraries. Journal of Business & Financial Librarianship, 17(1), 18-33. doi:10.1080/08963568.2012.630593

Crumpton, M., (2014, October). Teaching Workplace Information Literacy. Paper presented at the Georgia International Conference on Information Literacy. Retrieved from:

Forster, M. (2017). How is information literacy experienced in the workplace? In Information literacy in the workplace (pp. 11-28). London, England: Facet.

Forster, M. (2017). The ‘Workplace Experience Framework’ and evidence-based information literacy education. In Information literacy in the workplace (pp. 149-164). London, England: Facet.

Hollenbeck, Kevin. (1993). An Introduction to Workplace Literacy Programs. In Classrooms in the Workplace Workplace: Literacy Programs in Small- and Medium-Sized Firms. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, pp. 1-6.

Molopyane, J., Fourie, I. (2015) A framework for workplace information literacy in academic contexts: Central University of Technology, Free State (South Africa) as case studyLibrary Hi Tech, Vol. 33 Issue: 4, pp.562-583

Ruleman, A., Horne-Popp, L., Hallis, R. (2017, March 22-25). Show me the learning: navigating information literacy through multiple life perspectives. Paper presented at the ACRL Conference, At the Helm: Leading Transormation. Retrieved from:



I am also investigating JobJunction which is located in Halifax:




Jacobson, T. E., & Mackey, T. P. (2016). Metaliteracy in practice. London: Facet Publishing.

  • Examines issues relevant to the new ACRL Framework in relation to metalitaracy.

PIL (Project Information Literacy) conducted a two-year study of recent US college and university grads. Their findings “underscore a gap between the critical thinking and information literacy competencies colleges may be teaching and the work skills they may need” (p. xi).

The Metaliteracy Learning Collaborative has produced several useful pieces of work (including this book) which I have been following:

The authors discuss how to incorporate metaliteracy learning objectives into coursework. They point out that metacognition is a “learned practice” and that students are likely, even with prompts, to describe their actions instead of reflecting to articulate on their learning (p. 56). Some excellent coursework components from a nursing course are given in Chapter 3, “Metaliteracy Learning of RN and BSN Students” (pp. 57-58):

  • Hallmarks of Professionalism email assignment, which immediately asks students to reflect on their attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about writing within their profession.
  • Brainstorming to select a specific topic and scope.
  • Research log to identify search strategies and sources.
  • Annotated bibliography  to summarize, evaluate and reflect upon their sources.
  • Proposal to a supervisor for topic approval, first working individually and then in groups to refine it.
  • Presentation of evidence by adapting and remixing it for patient education scenarios.
  • Final reflection in which students summarize and describe their learning, and how it will be applicable in the future.

Where Collections and Metaliteracy Meet (Chapter 4)

The author (Amanda Scull) notes that in her institution (Mason Library at Keene State College), most library instruction focuses on large databases, but she advocates for moving away from this to developing and promoting institutional repositories and research guides.

creativity = workplace productivity

In my P21 Creativity Course, I have been learning how creative problem solving is key to workforce success. The course document “What we know about creativity” indicates:

“The well-documented, shifting global paradigm from manufacturing to knowledge-based to innovation economies makes the ability to solve problems creatively a necessary skill for educational and workforce success” (p. 1).

This document defines creativity in ways that mirror the Coursera course on Creativity that I took earlier in my LCP, and it is interesting that my own desire to be a creative learner is in line with what employers are requiring in today’s workforce.

The document indicates that creativity definitions are well developed, and they generally all tend to include novelty, usefulness and social context as defining factors (p. 1). It points out that learning environments are as important as innate ability in student creativity (p. 4), and that the specific conditions of such learning environments include:

  • Openness to experience
  • Confidence in one’s own creative ability
  • Task motivation
  • Domain knowledge and expertise
  • Resilience in the face of criticism

Several means of assessment for creativity are also described.

In all of my reading, Creativity is described as something that requires work, not just innate ability.

Before Christmas, my Creativity mentor, Kathleen, referred me to a blog by James Clear, who offers advice on how to  “master” creativity and transform our habits so that we can be more creative, which will help us be more productive and happier.


Clear, J. (1994). Mastering creativity: break through mental blocks, uncover your creative genius, and make brilliance a habit. Retrieved from

Clear, J. (2013). Transform your habits: learning how psychology makes it easier for you to live healthy and actually stick to your goals. Retrieved from

Plucker, J. A., Kaufman, J. C., Beghetto, R. A. (n.d.). What we know about creativity: part of the 4Cs Research Series. Retrieved from

This document contains an annotated bibliography.


acrl and 21st century skills in workplace info lit

I have been reading research by Annemarie Lloyd, senior lecturer in the School of Information Studies at Charles Sturt University who has researched and written extensively on information literacy in workplace contexts.

In her 2011 article, “Trapped between a rock and a hard place: what counts as information literacy in the workplace and how is it conceptualized”, Lloyd discusses the key issues related to workplace information literacy. Her key themes reflect the new ACRL framework, which advocates a contextual approach as being crucial for becoming information literate. It also underlines the importance of the 21st Century Skills, especially communication and collaboration, without which information people can’t become information literate in today’s workplaces.

Some highlights from this article:

  •  Workplace information literacy should “produce future workers who have the capacity to recognize and understand the central place that information, its creation, production, reproduction, circulation, and dissemination play in sustainable workplace performance” (p. 280).
  • The school “landscape” promotes individual performance and independent learning, whereas the workplace “landscape” is collaborative (pp. 280-281). The critical ground for information literacy research is the workplace (p. 279).
  • Workplace research shows that the generic information literacy skills we have been teaching are not transferable to the workplace (p. 277).
  • “Practice theories” can show us HOW information lit happens (p. 285).
  • Information literacy is not a skill but a practice (p. 286).
  • To become information literate, it is more important for a person to be collaborative than to learn a set of generic information skills (p. 294).


Lloyd (2012) describes a “people in practice perspective”which focuses on the “information landscape of their workplaces and everyday settings (p. 773).

Lloyd, A. (2011). Trapped between a rock and a hard place: What counts as information literacy in the workplace and how is it conceptualized? Library Trends, 60(2), 277-296. Retrieved from
Lloyd, A. (2012). Information literacy as a socially enacted practice. Journal of Documentation, 68(6), 772-783. doi: